The Mad Latinist (jdm314) wrote,
The Mad Latinist

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Mērion... lantir... tomir! (Harior, āeksios!)

Today I'm in even more of a hurry that usual, as I have a 7 PM concert (I'll miss the first showing of GoT, so no spoilers please!). As a result, please forgive any incompleteness or shoddyness.

News items:
  • The Valar Javaris promo ran again last week, and I've finally found it online. check it out. Comedy gold!
  • DJP posted again, "The Valyrian Word for Hamster" (let's call it VHam.) He gives a couple of lines from last week's episode, but more importantly he gives a full transcription of Oznak zo Pahl's Pythonian taunt. As it turns out, it's not in MV at all, but AV (perhaps with a bit of an MV accent though?)... the real-world reason for this is that DJP hoped someone would catch the joke. As for the in-world reason, I have a theory I will mention towards the end of the post.
  • I've already registered all the analyzable vocabulary form that speech, over at [[Astapori Valyrian Vocabulary]], so for the most part I won't deal with it in this entry. I did, however, want to note the words domba "no more," which came up in one of Kraznys's lines last year, and espo, the proper contraction of ez po
  • We finally know what HV kessa / AV kisa actually mean: "it will be"
  • We now have a @valyrianwiki twitter account for Wiki-related Valyrian news. It's just getting started, so there's not much to see there yet, but if you're reading this, you're probably the sort of person who should follow that account.

And now the episode title:
Jaehoro Valarō Vēttria
The Laws of Gods and Men.
I didn't have a word for "law," so I coined vēttir "what is arranged." I put "gods" and "men" in the collective, and "laws" in the plural, but any of them could easily have been done the other way around.

Now without further ado...
Missandei: Daenerys Jelmāzmo aō naejot dēmas hen lentrot Targārien
Subtitle: “You stand before Daenerys Stormborn Of the House Targaryen,”

M: Zȳho Brōzio Ēlos,
S: “the First of Her Name,”

M: Dorzalty,
S: “the Unburnt,”

M: Mirino Dāria,
S: “Queen of Meereen,”

M: Andālo si Ēlio Valo Dāria,
S: “Queen of the Andals and the First Men,”

M: Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi
S: “Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea”

M: Belmo Pryjatys se Muña Zaldrīzoti.
S: “Breaker of Chains and Mother of Dragons.”
This sentence contains a couple of previous episode titles we've discussed before:
  • Zȳho Brōzio Ēlos "First of his/her Name," so I should have gone with a preceding genitive.
  • Belmo Pryjatys which, if I heard right, uses the suffix -tys rather than a purely participial form, thereby avoiding the accusative/genitive problem that gave me so much trouble. Notice as well, that we have a genitive singular (a quirk we will see again), so a more literal translation would be "Breaker of the Chain."
In terms of the overall sentence, though, the main thing to notice is that the structure is exactly reversed from the translation: it really means "Before you sits Daenerys Stormborn...." Why? Well, a while back, Mr. Peterson wrote me, asking about precisely this sort of situation:
Let's say you say something like "Hector, breaker of horses" in Greek or Latin. In fact, let's say it was a long one, like "Hector, breaker of horses, mounter of steeds, painter of fancy portraits, decrier of injustices, arbiter of taste, offender of grandmothers, and sampler of appetizers". Some ridiculously long set of titles. Now say the first one of these is modified by some preposition that requires "Hector" to be in another case—so, something like, "I ate this watermelon with Hector, breaker of horses, mounter of steeds, painter of fancy portraits", etc. In the usual style, do they then change the case of each title as if it were modified by that preposition (say in the old epics), or do they revert to the nominative as they list his various titles?
... in retrospect this is clearly referring to this sentence. In any case, I answered that yes, absolutely, these should all be in the same case, but if he wanted nominatives he could rephrase it. I gave a suggestion or two, but not this particular solution, which is quite good. If he had gone with the English phrasing, he would have been stuck with a chain of genitives, which is always a risky situation in any langauge. Anyway, back to the specifics...

hen lentrot Targārien— surely this should be Targārio. Very likely actor error.

Andālo si Ēlio Valo Dāria— Again we have singulars here: "Queen of the Andal and First Man." I hear si, rather than se... could be a mistake, or maybe this is a prevocalic allomorph.

Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi— cool to actually get Khalēsi in a canonical HV sentence (of course it is pronounced as English, as aways on the show). But the translation of "Great Grass Sea" is interesting. We have the new word Embāzma, apparently meaning "Great Sea" (or perhaps just "metaphorical sea"), from embar + -āzma, and of course parmenka "grassy," an adjective formed off of parmon "grass." That much is clear. What's odd is the case mismatch: I would expect either Parmenko Embāzmot or Parmenkā Embāzmā.
Daenerys: Zūgagon daor, ñuhys raqiros.
S: “Don’t be afraid, my friend.”

D: [Skoros ynot epilū?]
A: [“What would you ask of me?”]
As a reminder, an underline indicates that we have an official transcription of a phrase from DJP, and brackets indicate a line which didn't actually air.

Zūgagon daor is our first canonical example of the negative imperative, which we've known for a while is formed with an infinitive plus daor.

Any occurence of skoros or skorion is useful, but we still haven't quite figured that distinction out. Epilū is a nice example of the desierative subjunctive.

Goatherd: [Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang.]
S: [“Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.”]

M: Ye Thál poghásh koth nyésha she yédhra.
S: “The Queen says you may approach and speak.”
And finally we reach some MV. I guess this sort of thing is exactly why they made MV so different.

Yeng shijetra "forgive me"—well, yeng s clearly equivalent to AV yn "me," but I'm hard pressed to come up with an etymology for shijetra... it doesn't help that we know "forgive" in neither AV nor HV. If you want to try your hand at figuring it out, keep in mind that an initial MV /ʃ/ could, so far as we know, correspond with any of the following AV phonemes: /s/, /z/, /j/, /d/.

osh eghlish "your majesty"—DJP says:
I was really fond of that osh eghlish for “your grace” or “your highness”. It’s the characteristic phrase of MV.
... so apparently this is a particularly MV turn of phrase, which might point to a Ghiscari origin (since MV apparently tends to use more words of Ghiscari origin than AV does)... but in point of fact, both of these words seem to be of Valyrian origin. Osh is a form of aōha/oa, and eghlish is from eglie "high." Both of these show the characteristic MV -sh (one could try to explain this as a fossilized HV form, like aōhys eglios, fairly literally "your highness," but it seems altogether more likely that this is the general MV phenomenon.)

Tha shifang "I don't understand"— tha is,of course, do, but shifang is less clear, other than that -ang is the usual -an 1s ending. Recall what I said above about initial MV /ʃ/, and that medial /f/ might correspond with a /b/ as well. Still, I don't have any serious guesses for siban, ziban, jiban, or diban either. And again, we don't know how to say "understand" in AV or HV.

Ye Thál poghásh koth nyésha she yédhra "the queen says you may approach and speak," however, is much less opaque. The only word without an obvious AV cognate is poghásh "says," which is pretty cleary the present tense of the verb I transcribed pogetás (Pogetás mätás rangal shérewa "She said she came to free us!"). Nyésha is also a bit tricky, but I suspect it represents a verb derived from naejon "front," so AV *nejagho, if that's right (perhaps it's even a contaction of *nejo jagho "go forward," but we know that, at least in HV, ). So, in AV the sentence would be ji Dare {ivetras} kota *nejagho se ydragho.

From here on the conversation becomes very difficult, both because the goatherd mumbles a bit (which is a nice touch, acting-wise, but a pain for us!) and because Missandei winds up translating Dany to MV simultaneously.
Gh: Shkan ma fikh ghash shpa huvrésh kéta. Oyghinyétang o arínye a p'Áshkesh.
M: He's a goatherd. He says he prayed for your victory against the slave masers.

D: I thank him for his prayers.
M: Thal Dáenerys a krímwash.
Shkan ma fikh ghash shpa huvrésh kéta is roughly "I am a goatherd," but a lot of the details are unclear. The obvious AV cognates here are Skan me ... espo hubres .... Fikh ghash, apparently meaning "herder" is very strange, but the goatherd does seem to enunciate two velar fricatives there, as opposed to the more intuitively plausible *fighash. I have no guess for keta, and it's mumbled so quietly that it's hard to be sure I have it transcribed right.

Oyghinyétang o arínye a p'Áshkesh "I prayed for your victory over the Masters"— Well Oyghinyétang is clearly a 1s perfect verb, but I can't say much more (it may incorporate a 2s pronoun? I'm not sure.) O arínye "your victory" is probably from something like aōhon *ērinion (ērin- + -ion), which should produce AV are *erine.... oh wait
no. Oh boy... so actually now that I think of it, that should be *erne, which causes a problem here. On the other hand, it solves another problem: the erntash "she defeated" in Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — that's HV *ērintas!

Thal Dáenerys a krímwash "Queen Daenerys thanks you"— I think this is Dare Daenerys o *krimvas— I'm taking this to be a verb from krimvo/kirimvos meaning "to thank" (or perhaps better to translate "to give thanks", if that's really a dative).
Gh: Thash pa shaldríjesh eta, wésh shaldríjesh, áshish kijnyérko nyẽ́klo?
M: It was your dragons, he says. They came this morning for his flock.

Gh: Eláng th' angóthang Osh Éghlish she, fil yamáng thor.
M: He hopes he has not offended your grace, but now he has nothing.
Honestly I can make very little out of the goatherd's first line here. I mean, pa shaldríjesh for "the dragons" is pretty clear. I don't have much for the rest. I mean, it's possible that eta, wésh is, despite the actor's reading, actually e tawe, meaning something like "today" (ez tovi?)? Or maybe eta is somehow from istis "they were"? That seems unlikely— far more likely that thash is! Couldwesh be another form of osh? "It was the dragons ... your dragons."

The second line is a little better. elang means "I hope," th' angóthang "I have not offended" (AV *angodan, cf. the attested angoda). Then we have osh eghlish again. The she and fil are a bit mysterious, perhaps sepār?? Finally yamáng thor "I have nothing" (=iman dory.)
D: Tell this man I am sorry for his hardship
M: Osh Éghlish Thal Daenerys ma...

D: I cannot bring back his goats,
M: ...warenshítu fakísh...

D: But I will see he is paid their value three times over
M: ...alva merpa sh'otreye.
Untangling everything that Missandei says here, while Daenerys speaks, let alone transcribing and analyzing it, would take way more time than I have. But note the following:

Osh Éghlish Thal Daenerys "Her Grace Queen Daenerys"— notice, however, that it keeps the osh, and therefore literally means "Your Grace!"

fakísh "animals?"— recall Zhalio's guess that this was the cognate of begisto "pig." But given the use of that word in Oznak's speech, it seems that it may be a general word for animals, or at least livestock, in Ghiscari Valyrian.

sh'otreye "the price" (=j’odre)
Gh: Krímwa! Osh Éghlish, krímwa! Krímwa! Krímwa!

D: Send the next one in.
Herald: Elá!
Well, the goatherd's response was pretty clear from the begining: "Thank you! Your Grace, thank you! Thank you! Thank you!"

Not sure where ela comes from, but it seems plausible enough for "Come!", "Next!", or whatever in Ghiscari Valyrian (I guessed AV, but I have no way of being certain.) It looks suspiciously like the word I transcribed elang, and translated "I hope," but that must surely be coincidental.
Manservant: Ji rehéde Síasa Hizdár zo Lóraq píndas me jeré ji Daré.
S: “The noble Hizdahr zo Loraq begs an audience with the Queen.”

D: Rehedesíazar Hizdahr zo Loraq sijinot syt ynot vestragon kostas.
S: “The noble Hizdahr zo Loraq can speak to me himself.”
First thing to notice here is that the manservant appears to be speaking Astapori here. My suspicion is that, since MV is so "lossy," while AV is more conservative, AV (or something approaching it) is used as a common means of communication between the three Slaver Cities. This is probably particularly true among the upper classes, and would also explain why Oznak's Pythonian Taunt was in AV.

Rehéde Síasa or Rehedesíazar, glossed "The Noble" is an unfamiliar term, and I strongly suspect it's of Ghiscari (making Dany's sarcastic repetition of the word all the more biting) Other than that, the only unfamiliar word the manservant uses here is jeré "audience." I wonder if it's somehow derived from HV jiōrigon "to receive (a guest)."

In the HV I believe we have an actor error, and sijinot syt "for himself" should actually be zijo syt (conflated with the later ynot), or even zirȳlo syt. Otherwise it's pretty clear: "The Rehedesíazar Hizdahr zo Loraq can say (it) to me for himself."
Tags: astapori valyrian, conlangs, david j. peterson, game of thrones, high valyrian, linguistics, meereenese valyrian, monty python, valyrian, valyrian wiki

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