The Mad Latinist (jdm314) wrote,
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  • Music: Ramin Djawadi — Heir to Winterfell

404 Qringōntir: Ivetrá ji Merininke, sa ji meri ho va mazmagho!

Wow, quite an embarras de richesse this week! Lots and lots of Valyrian dialog, with our first real exposure to Meereneese (MV). But before we talk about that, let's deal with the episode title, Oathkeeper.

We don't have "oath" or "keep," so I figured "promise holder" would suffice. Well, we actually have three HV words for "hold": oregon, pilogon, and raelagon. At first I went with Oressiros Kivȳti (I was thinking the jor- prefix might be nice, just to emphasize that this person keeps on keeping the oath, but then I decided that with jororessiros sounded dumb.) But when I asked my fellow Valyrianists what hey though, Joel W responded:

I would suggest raelagon for "to keep", since it seems least physical of the three verbs translated as "to hold" ("he holds us safe") Pilogon seems to mean "to hold in one's hand" and ōregon "to hold in one's arms". Jorōregon would then mean "to continue to hold in one's arms", which might have some idiomatic meaning, but I wouldn't be "to keep an oath/promise". Based on jorraelagon, I think it could mean "to embrace" in a metaphorical sense.

Anyway, my suggestion would be "Kivio Raeliros".
I think he's on to something! I still can't use the jor- prefix, though, since jorraelagon has the idiomatic meaning "to love." A further advantage, that I wish I'd spotted sooner, is that he used the singular kivio ("keeper of an oath" as opposed to "keeper of oaths"), and the genitive and accusative singular of that word are identical, this neatly skirting the problem we had last week with Pryjassiros Belmoti!

So the title is:
Kivio Raeliros
Oathkeeper


Oh, and one more thing before we start: if you're interested in High Valyrian, you'll probably enjoy this article (so to speak). Very amusing, um, if I do say so myself.

The big news is that we got our first clear dialog in Meereenese Valyrian (MV). Wow. On the one hand I am extremely excited about this. On the other hand, I am tearing out my hair trying to transcribe it, let alone analyze it. I could have sworn that David J. Peterson had said the Slavers Bay dialects of Valyrian were really just like regional dialects of one language; so close to one another that the best analogy would be US and UK English (the Game of Thrones Wiki seems to have gotten the same impression too). That is clearly not the case here. But then, now that I look at it, I can find no such claim on Dothraki.com. The closest I find would be this:
Whether the varieties of Valyrian spoken in Astapor, Yunkai and Meereen are different enough to be considered separate languages or dialect of a single language is a bit academic. It seems to me that they would likely be able to communicate with one another, but that the language systems will have grown apart. Even if they were different languages, they could probably meet at some middle ground to communicate. Out of world, this could be referred to as Ghiscari Valyrian, but I think it’d be more accurate to refer to each one separately (i.e. Astapori Valyrian, Yunkish Valyrian and Meereenese Valyrian).
...and this:
I can answer this question well enough. I call it Astapori Valyrian because they’re in Astapor. Just as easily one can say American English vs. British English. Just because they have different names doesn’t mean they’re mutually unintelligible (cf. Hindi vs. Urdu). Also, these are names I use. The people themselves, I’d wager, would probably just call it Valyrian.
In point of fact, the difference between AV and MV seems not so much analogous to British vs. American English as to Spanish vs. Portuguese. In fact, it would not surprise me at all if Mr. Peterson had that analogy in mind when he set about designing MV. In spite of this, though, Grey Worm and the Meereenese slaves are depicted as easily able to understand one another. AV and MV don't seem that mutually intelligible to me, but then again neither do HV and AV. Furthermore, a huge factor in intelligibility is familiarity: it's often the case that someone will have an easier time understanding a different dialect that they hear all the time, than a more similar but less familiar one. And of course the inhabitants of the Slaver Cities would be very familiar with each other.

However, since DJP has been too busy to post his traditional episode summaries at Dothraki.com this season (truly a tragedy!) We're operating in the dark here. When I look back over my posts from about this time last season, I'm always embarrassed by how poor my transcriptions are. I know intellectually that this is totally unfair, but it's hard to grasp emotionally, until I'm faced with the same task again.

In our favor, though, is that we already have a good knowledge of two related languages, AV and HV, something we did not have last year.

But against us stands the phonology of MV: lots of lax vowels, lots of eroded syllables. Last season, Mr. Peterson was able to provide us with a phonemic inventory of HV and (albeit parenthetically) AV by the week of the second episode, this year we are very much flying blind. I would offer the following observations though:
  • Whereas AV realizes the HV /v/ as [v], MV sees to mostly retain the more ancient [w]
  • Apical stops (that is, /t/ and /d/) are lenited to /s/ and (probably) /z/ before front vowels (/e/ and /i/).
  • The sibilants /s/ and /z/ are usually realized as [ʃ] and [ʒ] (or maybe [s̺] and [z̺]? But I don't think so.) I will be transcribing these as ‹sh› and ‹j› respectively. Note that this sound change affects even sibilants derived from the lenition of /t/ and /d/.
  • Original /ɣ/ probably disappears entirely, the gap being filled again in the next step.
  • The phonemes that are realized as voiced stops in AV (/b/, /d/, /g/) become fricatives in MV (/v/, /ð/, and presumably /ɣ/, but no firm examples of that).
  • Fricatives (include those that derive from voiced stops) are devoiced word initially, (and, apparently, in many other positions too) /v/ → /f/, /ð/ → /θ/, and /ʒ/ → /ʃ/; however /ɣ/ (if that is even correct) → /k/, though presumably via an intermediate phase of /x/.
  • The vowels! The poor vowels! They are a lot laxer, more like English than AV. As an English speaker I have no right to complain, but especially without a phonemic inventory it's pretty hard to guess what's what.
  • Post-tonic syllables are often dropped entirely

With all these changes, and so little official guidance, please excuse any inconsistencies in my transcriptions.

While this makes things pretty difficult, it does make me feel a lot better over how much trouble I had last time analyzing Oznak zo Pahl's monologue. But this would seem to confirm that I was not imagining when I heard him saying tujiles for tuziles! It also matches quite nicely with my theory that shif was equivalent to jiva—we'll even encounter this word again before long.

One more note: presumably AV and MV both derive from a common ancestor, "Proto-Ghiscari-Valyrian" if you will. That said, we don't have enough data to reconstruct Proto-Ghiscari-Valyrian yet, and AV is so much more conservative than MV that for our purposes it is often easier to act as if MV were derived from AV. Keep in mind, though, that this is just a convenient simplification, and not meant to reflect the actual history.



Missandeihisi Turgon Nudon Vesterosīhor udrir gūrēñas - Tymptir Dēmalȳti S04E04Our episode opens with Grey Worm getting a language lesson from Missandei. He is learning to speak the Common Tongue, not without difficulty. At one point his Common fails him, and the following exchange occurs:
Grey Worm: ola sizi j'edre
Missandei: Ivetrá ji Qohtenke. Sa ji meri ho va mazmagho
I admit I'm a bit lost on Grey Worm's line. From the context, it seems likely that the meaning is "Where are you from?" But I can't really get that out of ola sizi j'edre (it's worth mentioning that Zhalio hears "øl ola sizy ijetre," but unfortunately I still can't figure it out even if that is right.) Zhalio suggests ola is HV aola "yourself." I wonder if it might not be o la "you are" (or rather tu estás). In that case the meaning could be something like "You are also (sizi) foreign-born?" (that's not exactly a temporary state, but we don't fully know how las works in AV yet.)

Missandei's reply, on the other hand, is crystal clear: Ivetrá ji Qohtinke. Sa ji meri ho va mazmagho "Speak Common. It's the only way to get (it)"— ivetrá "say!," which I take to mean "speak!" here, since there doesn't appear to be a direct object, other than ji Qohtinke. As for ji Qohtinke, that's "Common" from HV Quptenkos (Ēngos); the -e ending may be on analogy to ji Valyre (also used with an article.) Meri "only," HV mēre; Ho (if I hear it correctly) is unknown, but from context must mean "way." Mazmagho "to take," HV mazemagon (we've seen other forms of this in AV, but never the simple present stem); it's at least possible this is actually a different word, as it sounds a bit like bazmagho.

Once Missandei answers Grey Worm's question, he once again fails to use the correct language:
G: Skuri av laetis
Which means "When they took you?" Sorry, that is "When did they take you?" Skuri for "when" is new, but not at all surprising, based on skorī. Laetis is a bit mysterious... the logical guess is that it is somehow connected to HV laodigon "to steal," but we don't know the perfect of that verb (Zhalio guesses *laotis)

Grey Worm's last AV line for this scene is also quite clear. So clear, in fact, that I was able to understand perfectly on first viewing, without Missandei's translation:
G: Eban senagho p'Aeske!
Eban senagho p'Aeske! "I want to kill the Masters."—nothing to discuss here even.


Tymptir Dēmalȳti S04E04 - Daenerys Targārien Merīni mazēzaAnd now we come to the real difficulty: Meereenese.
First slave: Yal rýht
Subtitle: “You heard her!”
1: Pogetás mätás rangal shérewa
S: “She said she came to free us!”
Since it's so hard, as things currently stand, to transcribe MV, let's compare what other hears have heard:
  • Zhalio: Yelu rid! Bō ketas metas wang yel sherwa!
  • Joel W: Yeol rit! Bokatas metasma yel sherowan
As I worked on this scene, I often found it was easiest to figure things out by first translating to AV (which, obviously, requires some guesswork and uncertainty in itself, but we've been working on it much longer than MV), then comparing. Unfortunately, in this case, that is no help: Zer ryhtat! Ivetredas matas ilo tebagho ilva derve!.

For the first part, it is remotely possible that yal is equivalent to the (unattested!) AV *ilo, but this does not fit with what we see later. Zhalio made the suggestion that the line actually means "We (all) heard her!" This makes a good deal of sense: it is easier to get to Yal rýht from something like AV ilo ryhti, than it would be from zer ryhtas. This may run afoul of the palatalization rule, since we don't have *ryhsh, but it's easy to imagine a reason for this: either analogical leveling, or perhaps the consonant cluster.

The second part of this line is much more opaque. The only words obviously identifiable are mätás (*matas) and sherewa (derve). Let me know if you have any bright ideas for the rest.


Second Slave: Shka me hof
S: “You're a fool.”
2: Késhe kraj wa óf.
S: “The Masters are too strong.”
Shka me hof "you're a fool"—This is pretty easy. Only word that's not obvious is hof "fool." It may be equivalent to AV hubre "goat," which, as you may recall, Kraznys used as a term of reproach, when annoyed by Missandei: Ska tala ja hubre pindagho kuno masino? "Are you a girl or a goat to ask such a question?"

Késh she kraj wa óf "the masters are too powerful.— I can't imagine késh (or maybe even késhe) is anything but a very abbreviated pronunciation of p'Aeshkesh, which, as we will see below, is the MV word for "the Masters." (Zhalio initially thought it might be cognate to kizi "these things," reading Keshi krajwao but he changed his mind later, suggesting ke shie krajwao?. I now agree at least that this is two words.) She "are," cf. si. Kraj "powerful"— now this is interesting. Recall that last episode, Grey Worm said something like oa qez, which I thought might mean "your majesty." But both Najahho and Zhalio heard it as oa grezy. Perhaps this is some sort of word meaning "great," "powerful." The syntax is a little tricky since "Your Great" or even "Your Great One" doesn't make a lot of sense, and it's hard to see how it could mean "Greatness," but even so, it is difficult not to think that this kraj is not somehow connected to that grezy. More on this word in a bit. Wa óf (I might think it's possible the word is hóf, except that we just had that as "fool") "too (much)"— we haven't had an expression for "too much" in any Valyrian dialect yet, but it's not hard to imagine AV using some sort of construction with va, meaning "to excess" or the like. Zhalio does not really hear an /f/ here.


1: Yal mizáslewásh.
S: “She will protect us.”
1: Untash shi kósh p’ashkésh
S: “She defeated the Masters’ champion.”
Yal mizáslewásh (or, as Zhalio prefers, Yel mizóslewash "She will protect us"— yal unlike last time, this is clearly a 1pl pronoun. Mizáslewásh "she will protect," I suspect this is a verb formed off of mysa "mother." So in AV the sentence would presumably be *ilo *mizoslivas.

Untash shi kósh p’ashkésh "She defeated the Masters' champion."— Untash(Zhalio œ̃tash) "she defeated"; interestingly if we try to trace this back to HV, about the only verb (known so far) that fits the bill seems to be ūñagon "to count," the 3s perfect of which is very likely *untas... going form "count" to "defeat" is a very odd semantic shift to say the least, but I suppose it would fit in with my wacky theory from last week that the HV word for enemy is qrinuntys "miscounter" or "miscounted one." Shi kosh "the champion"; shi is, of course, precisely the MV equivalent we would expect for ji, but I have no clue where kosh "champion" comes from. ETA: Zhalio suggests it was borrowed from Dothraki ko "bodyguard" with the MV -sh human ending, which is, I suppose possible.

P'aeshkésh "the Masters"... now THAT'S interesting. See, in High Valyrian, "master" is āeksio, and in Astapori it is aeske. In neither case does the word end in an /s/! My initial guess was that aeshkésh derived from the HV vocative form āeksios, since it is a word so often used in address (this might explain why it usually appears to be stressed on the final syllable. Final stress for vocatives does not appear to be the norm in HV—Dany addresses the Unsullied as Dovaogḗdys, for instance—but in many languages stress shifts on vocatives, and it would be a good match for the parallel final accent on imperative verbs. But this is pure speculation.) Zhalio then proposed that this is a general rule: all words that refer to people take a vocative -s ending. There is some evidence that this is correct, as we will see later. But if is indeed true, I would think the -s comes not so much from the vocative as from the solar gender ending: the solar gender is often associated with people (and vice versa), after all. This is something we will have to keep an eye out for.


1: Ez m'äzantyr gras
S: “She has a great army.”
1: Ivaf kiófa w'omvale shiv tówish fílva tosh?
S: “You want to live the rest of your days in chains?”
Ez m'äzantyr gras (Papaya: Ez me azantyl kras; Zhalio: Ez m' əzanchil gras) "She has a great army.— Ez (or possibly ézǝ) "has," = AV eza. M'äzantyr "army" is also pretty obvious, though the exact phonology seems to be in dispute. Zhalio's ch in particular makes a lot of sense here, since we expect t to become sh before a front vowel (though I suppose it's up for debate whether /y/ counts or not), but I am not 100% certain I hear that. Gras "great" is clearly the same as the word I transcribed kraj "powerful" above. Zhalio, insightfully, suggests that the difference in that final sound could be somehow related to the underlying ending, but details are difficult to come by, especially since it's odd to hear a pure s at all.
.
Ivaf kiófa w’omvale esh shif tówish fílva tosh? (Zhalio Ívaf kiófa wumva leshiftóish fílvətoish? "You want to spend the rest of your days in chains?"— Ivaf "you want" is clearly equivalent to AV ebat, but wow that phonology; I guess if I'm hearing this right the evolution of that ending must have been *-at*-ath-af (reminiscent not only of Cockney English, but also of the Italic languages). Kiófa "to live"; Zhalio proposes that this derives from kiōs "spring," via *kiōbagon "to flourish," = AV *kióvagho "to live"... it looks like the whole infinitive ending erodes away in MV, which is a bit disconcerting. It is very likely that original gh is dropped entirely on the way to MV. W'omvale "the remainder"; when Kraznys said "What is left will buy her 10" last year, the word for remainder sounded something like j'ombor (though we don't yet have an official transcription of this word), but what we have here in MV is unlikely to be the exact equivalent because the article appears to be w', which should indicate an aqua-terrestrial gender (as opposed to AV's j', indicating a celestial gender)... perhaps it's an entirely different formation on the same root (namely HV umbagon "to remain," = AV umbagho), such as umbarion (which would certainly mean "remainder," and be of the desired gender); or maybe the word just has a different gender in MV. Esh shif tówish "of your days" = AV ez jiva tubis; the /w/ in tówish is interesting, though, because it comes from an HV b, not a v—it's an innovation, not a retention. I'm not sure why here, and not, say, in kiówa (if indeed Zhalio's *kiōbagon is correct; it is unlikely to be the the u/ō distinction, because it doesn't seem to affect AV. Fílva tosh "in chains," = AV bilma dos; the /v/ is unexpected, but appears to be accurate (and is not exactly unparalleled in natural languages). So, in all: Ebat *kiobagho v'*umbare ez jiva tovis bilma dos?


Third Slave: Ivan kiófa
S: “I want to live.”
3: Wan shkó kanshísh sho fan aish.
S: “You saw what they did to those children.”
3: Shko ódav kamazlíwesh yá iro?
S: “What do you think they’ll do to us?”
Ivan kiófa "I want to live"— Eban *kiobagho. Not much to add.

Wan shkó kanshísh sho fan aish. "You saw what they did to those children."— Wan should mean "you saw"; we don't have the word for "to see" in AV, but in HV "you saw" would be undā... that's at least a possible etymon. Shkó kanshísh "what they did" = AV sko gontis, petty nice. Sho fan aish "to those children"; fan aish is probably equivalent to AV bona adja , but sho (or is it o?) is obscure. Very likely it's a we haven't had yet: David J. Peterson has said that AV is mostly "prepositions with some postpositions as opposed to the opposite in HV," but thus far we only know four prepositions in AV (he "like, as," hin "from," va "for, to," and ez "of, at"), of which only one (the last) does not come directly from a HV preposition. So we should expect to discover a lot more prepositions in Ghiscari Valyrian than we have seen so far.

Shko ódav kamazlíwesh yá iro? "What do you think they'll do to us?"— This one is quite clear, equivalent to Sko odaba gomozlivis va ilo?

Just a random note, before I move on: I called this character "Third Slave," but Robert Goodman, the actor who played him, has the character listed as "Valyrian" on his website. As a result, the Game of Thrones wiki currently lists this character as "Valyrian slave." I kind of doubt there's anything particularly Valyrian about this slave, more likely Mr. Goodman just went with that name because that was the language he was speaking.


2: Onyesh kiofasa ya lan jelnazmato
S: “I’ve been through two slave revolts, boy."
2: Zo gresh pujilio shenk
S: “They always end the same way:”
2: p’Ashkesh pilosh shi qlonya, me buzdal she mol
S: “The Masters in power and the slaves dead.”
Onyesh kiofasa ya lan jelnazmato (Zhalio Onyesh kíofesa ya lan jernazmatou(?)) "I’ve been through two slave revolts, boy."— Onyesh kíofesa appears to be equivalent to "I've been through," and obviously the second word is related to the kiófa "to live" we've already seen twice, but I have no guess on the first one. Ya lan will be equivalent to va *lanta. The last word of this bit is particularly difficult: when I first saw the episode, I naturally assumed it was a reflex of HV jelmāzma, but on my next listen I heard jelnamato. Meanwhile, Zhalio found it very difficult as well: at first as mentioned above, he heard jernazmatou, but with a "gurgling uvular -r-." Then he refined his guess to jirnazmatou or (he adds facetiously) jighnazmatou. That -tou element could very well be a postposition (though we already appear to have the preposition ya). Compare my reading uttumistu last week, where I complained that there didn't seem to be an adposition on that word. And of course both -tou and -tu could be variants on the tosh we've already seen (= AV dos). Of course another possibility is that it simply corresponds to "boy" in the subtitle—it doesn't seem like DJP to leave that out.

Zo gresh pujilio shenk (Zhalio: grish, otherwise the same) "They always end the same way"— this is very obscure. The zo could conceivably be the same preposition I spelled sho above and/or the zo commonly seen in Meereenese names. Gresh could possibly represent the outcome of an unattested HV noun *kelis "end" (cf. the verb keligon "to end," and the morphological class of the noun mōris "end," which, while it is not from the same root, has similar semantics. Also not related to kēli "cat" of course!) I suppose pujilio shenk could actually be pujiliosh henk, with the second word being from hēnka "the same."

P’Ashkesh pilosh shi qlonya, me buzdal she mol (Zhalio: P'aeshkesh pɨlosh shɨ qlonya, mei po buzdao she mol)— P'Ashkesh "the masters," at least that's how I hear it, but presumably this is p'Aeshkésh. Pilosh shi qlonya is the familiar phrase pilos ji qlony, qilōni pilos "holds the whip"—I'm not sure where the /a/ I'm hearing in qlonya comes from though. Me buzdal "and (the) slaves"— me is apparently a new word for "and"—later this scene Grey Worm uses it in AV a couple times. The Valyrian languages, like Latin, have many ways to say "and," so this is not that surprising in itself; what's odd is that it sounds exactly like the indefinite article. For that reason, I'm kind of inclined to accept Zhalio's reading of mei, just so that there's a difference! On the other hand, I'm pretty sure the speaker does say buzdal, not, as Zhalio hears, buzdao or (to fit with his theory about nouns representing humans) buzdaosh. I don't hear a clear po here either, but there is a bit of a hesitation between me and buzdal that could possibly be a [p˺] or the like. Note, by the way, that while we do apparently have the [l] pronunciation here, the word is not ˣfuzdal—Ghiscari words seem to be exempt from many of the sound changes (I've always felt like that was the case in AV as well) She mol "are dead" = AV si murghemol being equivalent to murghe/morghe... well that's MV for you in a nutshell! Here is another probable example of MV deleting original gh. In all p'Aeske pilos ji qlony, me (po) buzdari si murghi.


G: Valar morghūlis
S: “All men must die.”
G: Yn dynan kizi ez jim
S: “But I promise you,”
G: Meri tovi eji derve sa movitah he me glezor ez po bilma
S: “a single day of freedom is worth more than a lifetime in chains.”
Valar morghūlis "All Men Must Die," as if I need to analyze this. I will admit, however, that it was questionable for me to put that in red instead of green: valar morghūlis is supposed to be a common phrase in Essos, so treating it as HV in this context is a bit like saying the brand-name "Mailboxes Etc." is half-English half-Latin. I went with HV mainly for aesthetic reasons: to get the nice splash of red!

Yn dynan kizi ez jim "but I promise you." Dynan is new (and I'm only guessing on that spelling), as is jim (HV jemī—amazing how many gaps we still have in the AV pronouns table!)

Meri tovi eji derve sa movita he me glezor ez po bilma "One day of freedom is preferable(?) to a life of the chains."— glezor (HV glaesor) is new, but the real crux is movita he "preferable to" "better than" or the like. Perhaps there is an HV *mobigon "to prefer"? I sort of hear an /h/ at the end of this word, but it's very likely just anticipation of the following he (which can apparently mean "than." I did think at first that maybe it represented some sort of comparative, but *mobityktamovitah doesn't seem very likely.


2: Val shka?
S: “Who are you?”
You may recall that when Daario approached Yunkai, the sentry exclaimed something which I transcribed Bálkor ílas (recall as well that DJP didn't have time to develop Yunkish, so the two lines of Valyrian we get there are actually just AV). From content we would want this to mean something like "who goes there," "who is it," or whatever. It seems these are related.

Zhalio suggested that val was from HV vala "man." It would have started out as "what man" and got shortened to just "man," just as Italian che cosa more often than not gets shortened to cosa, which normally means just "thing." Similarly we could have started with vala skore and wound up with just val. Bálkor ílas then, may actually be Valkuri las "Who is it?" ← vala skore ilas (literally "What man lies?")


G: Ji broji ez bezy sa Torgo Nudho
S: “This one is called Grey Worm.”
G: Mazedhan lodiri hí me bive p’Aeske j’Astapor dos.
S: “I was taken as a baby by the Masters of Astapor,”
G: rudmari me bodmari he Dovoghedhy.
S: “raised and trained as Unsullied.”
G: Sir osvelivan Daenerys zy
S: “Now I fight for Daenerys,”
G: ji Mysa ez po Zaldrizes
S: “the Mother of Dragons”
G: me ji Pryjare ez po Bilma
S: “and Breaker of Chains.”
Ji broji ez bezy sa Torgo Nudho "This one's name is Grey Worm.

Mazedhan lodiri hí me bive p’Aeske j’Astapor dos. "I was taken as a baby by the Masters of Astapor"— Mazedhan lodiri "I was taken," with the AV passive, which consists of a form of mazmagho "to take, get" + a present participle participle (though some details are unclear.) When I first listened to this, I was sure he said mazedhan lo didighí, which should mean "I took if hamster," if my interpretation of Oznak's taunt was correct! Hí me bive "as a baby"; bive is new (when Kraznys talked about the Unsullied killing babies, he used ruo, from HV rūs, the same word Talisa used to describe her unborn child in the letter). P’Aeske j’Astapor dos. "by the Masters of Astapor" is pretty straight forward, just don't forget about that postposition.

Rudmari me bodmari he Dovoghedhy "raised and trained as Unsullied"— both rudmari and bodmari are present participles (still dependent on mazedhan) of -emagon factitive verbs. We've known bodmagho "to train" for a while (I suspect the bod- element is cognate to HV botagon "to suffer, undergo" via the sense of "experience"), but rudmagho is new. Hard to come up with a convincing etymology for the first element: rūda "dropped?" rudita "dug?" Rūs "baby" provides an interesting match, but then we need to explain that /d/, and... well "to make baby-like" is not what "raise" means. This also marks our first occurrence of me (or however it will actually turn out to be spelled) "and" in AV.

Sir osvelivan Daenerys zy "now I fight for Daenerys" Osvelivan "I fight" is new, but clearly derived from known roots: the intensive prefix oz- and the verb vīlībagon "to fight" — not attested so far in this basic form, but known from sytivīlībagon "to fight for," and vīlībāzma "war." (I confess I stupidly forgot about oz- when I first wrote up my notes, and had to have Zhalio remind me.)

... ji Mysa ez po Zaldrizes ... "The mother of dragons"

... me ji Pryjare ez po Bilma "and the Breaker of chains." Looks like I was on roughly the right track last week, with Pryjassiros Belmoti!

2: Shká Thowá?
S: “You are Unsullied?”
2: Afo jej ojweliwa nish shke shél fendá
S: “They taught you how to fight before you could walk.”
2: Va shke minshísh
S: “We are not soldiers!”
Shká Thowá? "You are Unsullied?" (= AV Ska Dovoghedhy?) Yet another example of the incredible eroding power of MV (though once again the gh probably has a lot to do with this.) Zhalio is suspicious of this shortening, and wonders if this might perhaps be an entirely different word, meaning, say, "cut." I think this is unlikely.

Af fojej ojweliwa nish ke shél fendá (Zhalio: Afo jeij ozweliwa nish kɨ shel fendá ) "They taught you to fight before you could walk."— The first half is pretty clear, being equivalent to Av bodedhis ozvelibagho "they trained you to fight" (btw, note once again we have an MV w from an HV b). The second half is still pretty opaque to me. I suspect nish is from HV naejot (= AV nejo). We know that root cannot be used to mean "before" (temporally speaking) in HV, but perhaps it can in Low Valyrian, with something like AV nejo sko being equivalent to French avant que etc. Other than that, I have few ideas worth mentioning.

Va shke minshísh "We are not soldiers" (= AV do ski *minti)— I'm really hoping that what I'm hearing as va is actually tha, which would be much easier to explain. I mean, given that we have ivaf answering to ebat, a /d/ → [v] change wouldn't be entirely unparalleled, but in every other cognate we've spotted, initial /d/ becomes /θ/ instead. Minshísh is primarily interesting in that it has that "extra" -sh, and final stress, just like aeshkésh, showing that Zhalio is probably on the right track here.


3: I om tõl fõjem
S: “We have no training,”
3: tõl khem
S: “no weapons.”
The nasalization is probably just a peculiarity of this actor's/character's delivery, and indeed Zhalio prefers not to transcribe it at all ("I em tol foljeni, tol kem.").

I om tõl fõjem "we have no training" seems to be equivalent to AV ilo emi dori *bodemare (or *bodeme? I'm just guessing on the noun form here).

tõl khem "no weapons" is a bit more difficult, as we don't know the word for "weapon" in any form of Valyrian so far.


G: Bodes kari buzdari ez kizo ohte ez tulve aeske zy
S: “There are three slaves in this city for every Master.”
G: Dory jim kotas tebagho jiva derve sumbazi
S: “No one can give you your freedom, brothers.”
G: Lo ji ebat
S: “If you want it,”
G: jimi sydlivas zer mazmagho
S: “you must take it.”
Bodes kari buzdari ez kizo ohte ez tulve aeske zy "There are three slaves for every master in this city"— Bodes kari buzdari "there are three slaves"; the first two words are a bit difficult. We would expect the AV word for "three" to be hari, on the basis of HV hare (of course AV numerals, from what little we know, do seem to differ quite a bit from their HV ancestors), but it also seems unlikely that bodesk is the word for "there are." And for that matter, I don't really have any analysis for bodes either. So maybe I'm hearing something wrong here? Ez kizo ohte "in this city"; ohte is new, but exactly what we would have guessed on the basis of HV oktion as well as the known AV word ohtoni "urban." Ez tulve aeske zy "for every master"; the ez is superfluous here, and almost certainly wrong. Other than that the only new thing is tulve "every," answering to HV tolvie.

Dory jim kotas tebagho jiva derve sumbazi. Lo ji ebat, jimi sydlivas zer mazmagho "No one can give you your freedom, brother. If you want it, you must take it."— jimi, jim = jeme, jemot.Sumbazi "brother" is new. I don't know the etymology (kinda reminds me of Greek συμ-, incidentally)... perhaps it's Ghiscari? And those are the only words in this bit that we didn't already. We've come a long way, eh?

And just in case you didn't notice, that last line is also a nearly direct (albeit translated) quotation of Dany's Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. from last season.



Shiná p’Aeshkésh!At sunrise a Great Master is out with two bodyguards, when he sees something horrific... a Graffito written in Westerosi Common!!! Yes, yes, we've been complaining about that all year (since at least January 12). So the master reacts by saying:
Master: Shka fäkís grágha
Aside from shka, which is obviously "you are" (or, perhaps on analogy to ivaf it's actually shkaf (f)äkís... "Y'all are"), and the rest is pretty unclear. Zhalio has a fabulous guess though: he speculates it's equivalent to AV Ska beqisto qrugh "You are a pig (of) shit!", which he suggests might be an interjection of surprise. A particularly nice feature of beqísto is that it would explain the final accent on fäkís.

Bodyguard: Aeshkésh!
This confirms that Aeshkésh is the singular, as well as the plural.

Suddenly they are mobbed by slaves. If you listen carefully, you can hear them chanting:
Slaves: Shina p'aeshkesh! Shina p'aeshkesh!
"Kill the masters! Kill the masters!" (= AV Sená p'Aeske!, and of course we've already had in HV as Āeksia ossēnātās).


Slaves: Mysa! Mysa!
I mention it only to point out that they're not saying mysha. This could be because, as I said, Ghiscari words don't seem to change as much. More likely it's just that DJP wasn't asked about that line, since in the books they say mhysa in Meereen.

Daenerys, ready to begin the crucifixions, nods to Grey Worm, Grey Worm nods to an unsullied, who gives a command:
Unsullied: Hurai!
This must mean something like "Proceed!," but I have no analysis.
Tags: astapori valyrian, conlangs, david j. peterson, game of thrones, high valyrian, linguistics, meereenese valyrian, valyrian
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