The Mad Latinist (jdm314) wrote,
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Do kotozlíva klimágho kízi

Continuing on my last post, here is my attempt at a transcription for the “Astapori Valyrian” in Game of Thrones, episode 303. For further explanation, see that previous post—everything in the introduction there applies here as well (including, I repeat, some very nasty words). Note that Najahho was not generally available to help me this week... but hopefully he can post his suggestions in the comments when he has more time.

One additional source: Qilōnario Geron (QG), David J. Peterson’s blog entry about the episode.
ETA: I should have also included a video of the scene.

Missandei: Ébas pon síndigho úni.
Subtitle: “She wants to buy them all.”
Peterson gave this sentence in QG, so the orthography is confirmed, as is the translation given in the subtitle.

This also confirms that ébas means "wants," although the spelling with a ‹b› (rather than the /v/ I thought I heard) makes my theory that the word is related to evá "until" highly unlikely. Furthermore, we now have a -gho infinitive for the first time in one of Mr. Peterson's official examples.

New in this sentence are pon "them," and úni "all." This latter may also explain ún sepá in my last post. It is somewhat difficult (though not impossible) to work an "all" into that sentence (cf. English "at all"), but it would certainly explain why Kraznys hit that word so strongly.


Kraznys mo Nakloz: Do portás pon erágho
M: “She can't afford them”
Nothing too surprising here. Do portás "she cannot," and pon erágho "afford them."
ETA: Dinok comments that this is just kotás, consistent with other occurences of "can" in this scene. On listening again, I have to agree—it's not like the idea never occurred to me, so I don't know why I was never convinced before.



K: Ji líve otobás sko kotíles (ki)kekimágho po bénben misído rughílisi tebágho dólikor ebílas.
S: “The slut thinks she can flash her tits and make us give her whatever she wants.”
Ji líve otobás: "the whore thinks." Líve should be familiar from my last post, where Kraznys used it every other line. Notice that it's translated "slut." Otobás is new, but a recognizable 3s verb form (other than the unusual accent.)

sko kotíles: "that she can." We will see forms of this verb repeatedly in this scene. I cannot explain the -es rather than -as, but it seems to recur later.

(ki)kekimágho po bénben: "flash her tits." That first syllable is very difficult to make out, and I could be reading it wrong, or putting it wit the wrong word... however the infinitive ending is clear. Po seems to come up several times in this dialog, with an unclear meaning (and of course, never stressed, so I have no proof it's even a word—this could be pobénben for instance.) My guess is that maybe it's some sort of plural article: Peterson has repeatedly mentioned that ji and vi are the two singular articles, but he tends to phrase it in such a way that it makes you wonder what's going on in the plural. About bénben I have nothing really to add other than "nice reduplication."

misído: meaning very unclear, but my guess is that it means something like "and then."

rughílisi tebágho: "we are compelled to give." -i seems to be the 1pl ending (cf. ébi below. I toyed with this idea for lodóli "we make sure" in last post, but was not smart enough to say so in print), and the verb tebágho "to give" will be seen several times in this dialog. Rughílisi may be somehow etymologically connected to the rughílis we saw in the last post, where it meant "they collapse." Compare English expressions like "to fold," "to yield," "to give out," which could conceivably be used both for giving in or for fainting. Note, however, that tebágho is an infinitive, a construction which none of those English expressions would use.

dólikor ebílas: "whatever she wants."


M: “There are eight thousand unsullied in Astapor. Is this what you mean by ‘all?’”
Dænerys: “Yes, eight thousand. And the ones still in training as well.”
M: Ivétras sko ebílas sizi po gimiláros vení.
Ivetras sko ebílas: "She says that she wants."

sizi po gimiláros vení: "even the trainees." Sizi was one of the first Astapori words we learned, back in VD. Recall also that last post we had a word gímigho, which the subtitles gave as "to know," but which I translated "to learn." This would seem to confirm that gloss: gimiláros are presumably "learners." I cannot, however, explain vení.


Greizhen mo Ullhor: Dó ghonísi sinágho si púji bivé, narejozlívis ji Ástapor.
S: “If they fail on the battlefield, they will shame Astapor.”
M: “Master Greizhen says they cannot sell half-trained boys: if the fail on the battlefield they will bring shame upon all of Astapor.”
I'm not so certain the subtitle is accurate on this one, because Dó ghonísi sinágho looks so much like a 1pl verb followed by an infinitive (perhaps "We must not permit"?)

I cannot even guess on si púji bivé until I'm more certain about the first part.

narejozlívis ji Ástapor, however, is pretty clear. The sentences Peterson gives in QG confirm that -liv- is a marker of the future tense (I speculated on this in my last post, but my morphemic analysis was way off. That said, the details of exactly this form is put together are still quite foggy, on which see below.) So narejozlívis must mean "they will shame." Note that we have here ji Ástapor, rather than the j'Ástapor we might have expected.


D: “I will have them all or take none. Many will fall in battle; I’ll need the boys to pick up the swords they drop.”
M: [--]
I was completely unable to hear what, if anything, Missandei was saying here.


K: Do kótas réni rójagho les gizíole
S: “The slut cannot pay for all of this.”
M: “Master Kraznys says you cannot afford this.”
The beginning of Kraznys' line sounds like "Oh, kótas," but since we know that kótas means "can," we need a negative here. So I'm going to hazard a guess that this is just his dramatic delivery of Do kótas. Réni is apparently "slut," which gets us one word closer to understanding "ji réni ijí oghál" from last post. Rójagho must mean "to pay," but I cannot explain les gizíole.



K: zi ológhor ji sindazlívas dómba
S: “Her ship will buy 100 unsullied, no more,”
M: “Your ship will buy you 100 unsullied.”
zi ológhor: "her ship...."

ji sindazlívas: "...will buy her...." We've already seen that sindágho means "to buy," and that the -liv- element indicates the future. Ji appears several times apparently as a dative 3s (f?) personal pronoun. Or so it seems, but later on we have zer doing the same thing in a sentence given to us by Peterson himself, so I'm not sure how to interpret this.

dómba: Since it starts with do, I at first thought this meant "no more," but on second thought I realized it can only mean 100.



K: (?) ji kízi rováji púnja yn ílas
S: “... and this because I like the curve of her ass.”
M: “... because Master Kraznys is generous.”
ji kízi (I cannot be sure I don't hear another syllable before this) must mean something like "this because." Kízi shows up later with the meaning "this" (compare vézi from the last post.)

rováji púnja: "(her) big ass." In QG, and the comments thereto, repeatedly commented on the sensual phonaesthetics of the word rováji "biggest." So it wouldn't be surprising if he did indeed decide to rewrite this sentence to include it. I'm assuming this is one of those cases where the superlative just means "very," as is often the case in Latin.

yn ílas: "pleases me." Ílas is of course a 3s verb, and we will later see yn with the meaning "me."


K: j’ombór ji sindazlívas áuba
S: “What is left will buy her 10.”
M: “The gold you have left is worth ten.”
j’ombór: "the remainder," or possibly "the gold."

ji sindazlívas áuba: "will buy you ten." The -ba in áuba might conceivably be the same as that in dómba "a hundred."



K: ji tebozlíva nalánta se klímas si zío
S: “I will give her 20 if she stops her ignorant whimpering.”
M: “But Good Master Kraznys will give you 20”
ji tebozlíva: "I will give her."

nalánta: twenty. Note that there is no obvious connection to áuba "ten" (but then in most languages there is not.)

se klímas si zío: "if she stops her whining." This seems to imply that the word for "if" is se, which worries me because it is identical to the Italian word: I know that that kind of thing sometimes bothers Peterson, so my transcription may be suspect here.



K: Si Dóthraki túzizes dúgh, kutís jágho síri va rughébor. Tebazlíva pára va bóri.
S: “Her Dothraki smell of shit, but may be useful as pig feed. I will give her 3 for those.”
M: “The Dothraki you have with you... the Dothraki you have are not worth what they cost to feed. But Master Kraznys will give you three for all of them.”
Si Dóthraki túzizes dúgh: "Her Dothraki smell of shit." This prove that my analysis last post of the sentence translated "Tell the old man he smells of piss" was incorrect: the transcription there should read Ivetrá ji vebi túzizes orkós. I cannot explain the form of túzizes, which appears to be the same in the singular and plural, unless (as I originally speculated, incorrectly, about *zezorkós) it is some sort of contracted verb—or not a verb at all. Oh right, and now we know the Slaver's Valyrian word for "shit."

kutís jagho síri "may be useful." Either kutís is just an alternate form of kótis "they can," and jágho síri means "be used" (perhaps síri is a passivizing auxiliary verb, or even suffix), or it's a related word meaning "perhaps" (and then jaghosíri is maybe an adjective?)

va rughébor: "for pig feed." We saw va already in vá ji mhýsa "for the mother," last post.

Tebazlíva pára va bóri: "I will give three for them." Va again. Pronouns are still a mess, but perhaps bóri could be related to pon. Last post's tába vóry vezý "a mewling fool, this one" is suspiciously similar, but it's probably a coincidence.


K: Dogh [??] sikutí páire si angáze sighutás [??] ...
S: “So, ask this beggar queen, how will she pay for the remaining 7,877?”
M: “Master Kraznys asks how you propose to pay for the remaining ... 7,877 Unsullied?”
No matter how hard I tried, I couldn't hear the majority of this line. I don't think I can even try to analyze until we get more of it.


From here on out, we have Mr. Peterson's official transcription and translation for every line.
D: “I have dragons. I’ll give you one.”
M: Ivétras sko o tebozlívas me zaldríze.
Peterson's translation: “She says she will give you a dragon.”

Ivétras sko: "She says that..."

o tebozlívas: "... she will give you ...," so o is the 2pl dative pronoun.
me zaldríze.: "... a dragon." So me is the indefinite article. As he explains in QG (as well as this comment), Peterson didn't like the drac- (or indeed the ‹c›) in dracarys, so he decided to make the word for "dragon" unrelated.



K: Ivetrá zer ebí ji rovája.
M: “They want the biggest one.”
Peterson's translation: “Tell her we want the biggest one.”

New in this sentence are:

zer, which corresponds with "her," and is therefore a dative 3s personal pronoun. Only problem is, as mentioned, that ji seems to be exactly the same thing.
ETA: Oh, duh, silly me: this is obvious. Zer is not a third person dative, but a first person nominative plural (in other words it means "we.")
ETA2: Actually, no: It is clear from David Peterson's latest post that zer is actually the accusative of the third persn singular (feminine?) So I guess ivetragho works like English "tell," rather than "say" (or Latin dicere): the addressee is considered the direct object.

ebí "we want." This confirms that the 1p ending is -i

I have nothing further to say about ji rovája "the biggest," but it's worth pointing out since Peterson likes it so much.


D: “I’ll take you as well. Now. You’ll be Master Kraznys’ gift to me, a token of a bargain well struck.”
M: Píndas sko ji yn tebíla, va me rúdhy. Píndas sko gómila kízi sír.
S: “She asks that you give me to her, as a present. She asks that you do this now.”
Píndas sko: "She asks that..."

ji yn tebíla: "... you give me to her." Ji, as I said, seems to mean "to her." Yn "me." Tebíla "you give," presumably 2pl.

Píndas sko gómila kízi sír: "She asks that you do this now."

Here endeth the transcript. Some general notes:

We can now state with some certainty most of the basic personal endings for verbs:
Sing. Plur.
1 ? -i
2 -au -a
3 -as -is

Some verbs have this -il- infix, which I think etymologically is identical to the verb las/lis "is/are." This is clearly a morphological difference, not a derivational one (e.g. tebágho "to give," tebazlíva "I will give," sko tebíla "that you give"), but the exact difference in meaning is not clear to me. My current thinking (based, of course, on the form's ultimate real-world origin, valar morghulis "All Men Die") is that it refers to an action at a non specific time: dólikor ebílas "whatever she might want," evá rughílis "until they collapse," etc. The problem is of course píndas sko gómila kízi sír "she asks that you do this now." But it's easy to see how a "timeless" tense could shift into an irrealis-type of meaning... and indeed, many of the examples of this form occur where European languages might use a subjunctive. The difference would be cases like rughílis--"Even brave men fear death (just not necessarily at this, or any, particular moment.)" Further analysis is needed.

By contrast the various forms containing -liv- quite clearly constitute the future tense. Here I should probably mention dozeanelívas, in last post's Lizás zénekiz zí dozeanelívas?. The subtitles translate this "She’s worried about their nipples?" But perhaps this is a verb *dozeanágho (or is it *dozeánigho?), meaning "to cut off the nipples"—it does begin with do-, and perhaps the slavers do this often enough to need a verb, like our "decapitate." In that case I would assume that dozeanelívas is a first person plural.

If the meaning of this -liv- form is clear, the construction is a bit mystifying:
Sing. Plur.
1 tebozlíva
tebazlíva
dozeanelívas?
2 (No Examples) (No Examples)
3 sindazlívas
tebozlívas
mejorezlívas
narejozlívis
I initially thought the form was created by adding -lívas to the appropriate present tense form, with final -s becoming -z, and the preceding vowel moved to a middle hight (i.e. turned to -e- or -o-), but forms like sindazlívas seem pretty clearly pronounced with an /a/-like sound. Furthermore, the first person, so far as I can hear, always lacks the -s... and the other attested forms never do. And we have narejozlívis instead of *narejezlívas as I would have expected. If there is a pattern, I have not yet figured it out.

We've also gained some knowledge of pronouns, but, alas, not enough to make a chart worth while at this point. Perhaps next time.
Tags: astapori valyrian, conlangs, david j. peterson, dothraki.com, game of thrones, linguistics, valyrian
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